The Nose
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 Nasal Dysfunctions
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Nasal Dysfunctions


Nasal congestion refers to the blockage of the nasal passages. In response to various threats the internal nasal tissues swell due to dilated blood vessels, the mucous thickens and the ciliary movement on the mucous membrane decreases lowering in turn the efficiency of cleaning mechanism of the nasal mucosa. As a result, respiration through the nose is obstructed and may eventually lead to attenuation of its protective function and the appearance of infection...

 
Common Cold Rhinitis Sinusitis

Sinusitis

Sinusitis is the inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. The sinuses are air-filled spaces in the skull (behind the forehead, nasal bones, cheeks, and eyes) that are lined with mucus membranes. Healthy sinuses contain no bacteria or other germs. Usually, mucus is able to drain out and air is able to circulate. Sinusitis is most commonly caused by a viral or bacterial infection or by an allergy or autoimmune issues.



Sinusitis can occur from a number of conditions:

Cilia in the sinuses, which help move mucus out, fail to work properly,

• Viral, bacterial & fungal infections, allergies or other autoimmune issues may cause too much mucus to be made or block the opening of the sinuses,

A deviated nasal septum, or nasal polyps may block the opening of the sinuses.

• Chemical irritation can also trigger sinusitis e.g. cigarette smoke, chlorine fumes. Rarely, it may be
   caused by a tooth infection.


Sinusitis may occur in any of the four groups of sinuses: maxillary, ethmoid, frontal, or sphenoid. It nearly always occurs in conjunction with inflammation of the nasal passages (rhinitis) and some refer to the disorder as rhinosinusitis. Sinusitis can be acute (going on less than four weeks), subacute (4–8 weeks) or chronic (going on for 8 weeks or more). All three types of sinusitis have similar symptoms, and are thus often difficult to distinguish. Recurrent sinusitis is defined with several acute attacks within a year. The classic symptoms of acute sinusitis in adults usually follow a cold that does not improve, or one that worsens after 5 - 7 days of symptoms. Acute sinusitis usually results in pain, tenderness, congestion and obstruction in the nose, reduced ability to smell (hyposmia), bad breath (halitosis), a productive cough (especially at night), and swelling over the affected sinus. In acute sinusitis, yellow or green pus may be discharged from the nose. Fever and chills also can occur, but their presence may suggest that the infection has spread beyond the sinuses. The symptoms of chronic sinusitis are similar to those caused by acute sinusitis. The most common symptoms of chronic sinusitis are nasal obstruction, nasal congestion, and postnasal drip. People with sinusitis may have colored discharge and a decreased sense of smell. A person also may feel generally ill.